Nijmegen breakage syndrome

Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder causing chromosomal instability, probably as a result of a defect in the double Holliday junction DNA repair mechanism and/or the synthesis dependent strand annealing mechanism for repairing double strand breaks in DNA (see Homologous recombination).NBS1 codes for a protein (nibrin) that has two major functions: (1) to stop the cell cycle in the S phase, when there are errors in the cell DNA (2) to interact with FANCD2 that can activate the BRCA1/BRCA2 pathway of DNA repair. This explains why mutations in the NBS1 gene lead to higher levels of cancer (see Fanconi anemia, Cockayne syndrome.) The name derives from the Dutch city Nijmegen, where the condition was first described.Most people with NBS have West Slavic origins. [Source: Wikipedia ]